Disease Transmission

Emerging vector-borne illnesses make this a crucial moment to bolster the surveillance capacities and infrastructure that are needed to respond effectively and protect lives.  Vulnerability to infection, and particularly to resistant strains, threaten urban health both within and outside of the health care sector.  The rapid growth and interconnectivity of global cities play a role in the spread of conditions ranging from Ebola and Zika to pandemic flu.

PREDICTING EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN URBAN SETTINGS

Dr. Stephen Morse and colleagues in PREDICT, a key project of USAID’s Emerging Pandemic Threats program, are working to define the effects of urbanization on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases, and on developing methods to assess risks. Research areas include assessing the role of live animal markets and rapidly growing urban centers in developing countries with studies ongoing in a number of countries in Africa and Asia.

TIMING OF MATERNAL HIV TESTING AND UPTAKE OF PREVENTION IN JOHANNESBURG

Drs. Elaine Abrams and Louise Kuhn enrolled mothers of newly diagnosed HIV-infected children in Johannesburg, South Africa at five major health care facilities, as part of the “Finding Infants with HIV Disease: Evaluation of Resistance study.” This prospective study analyzed modifiable factors and timing associated with prevention of mother-to-child transmission.