Dr. Anthony is a virologist working in the field of emerging infectious diseases. He is the co-lead for viral discovery and characterization for the USAID PREDICT project. Dr. Anthony's research focuses on the characterization, ecology and epidemiology of viruses. This includes addressing basic yet fundamental questions about viral diversity, such as the number of viruses that exist in humans, wildlife and other animals, and whether changes to viral diversity are inherently predictable. Dr. Anthony is also focused on understanding the factors that increase disease emergence risk, which may include host species traits or environmental drivers, and on characterizing the mechanisms behind specific cross-species transmission events. Finally, he is interested in theoretical and practical approaches to surveillance both of which are vital to an understanding of disease ecology and the process of emergence.
Select Urban Health Activities
Investigating zoonotic viruses in illegally imported wildlife products (bushmeat): Nearly 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans are of zoonotic origin, the majority of which originate in wildlife. Therefore infectious diseases acquired from contact with wildlife, such as occurs via the wildlife trade, are increasingly of concern to global public health. The United States is the worlds largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. Given that the most products enter the US through major airports such as JFK, we are looking for zoonotic viruses in wild animal products illegally imported into US in an effort to prevent the transmission of infectious agents.
Select Global Activities
USAID-PREDICT, Bangladesh, Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, Colombia, Gabon, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Mexico, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam: Nearly 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans are of zoonotic origin, the majority of which originate in wildlife. PREDICT, a project of USAID's Emerging Pandemic Threats Program, is a global initiative that seeks to discover viruses in wildlife from more than 20 countries around the world before they emerge in the human population. Working with partners from UC Davis, EcoHealth Alliance, Metabiota, the Wildlife Conservation Society and the Smithsonian Institute, PREDICT is developing an early warning system for pandemic preparedness and prevention by gaining of knowledge of what viruses exist in wildlife, and by building One Health capacity around the world.
Viral and Pathogen Discovery in Marine Mammals, World: The viral diversity of marine mammals remains largely unexplored, despite the continued emergence of new viruses into cetacean (dolphins) or pinniped (seals) populations, and the significant mortality that sometimes follows. A recent example includes the emergence of avian influenza H3N8, which emerged in the New England seal population in 2012 from wild birds. One goal of this project is therefore to identify infectious agents associated with mortality events in marine mammal populations. The second goal of this work is to explore viral diversity in marine mammals and investigate the ecological and evolutionary link between viruses of marine and terrestrial species. Such work is beginning to show that many viruses of terrestrial mammals may have origins in the marine ecosystem, and given the clear opportunities that exist for viruses to move between land and sea, may represent an important source of emerging viruses.
Anthony, S.J; St. Leger, J.A; Liang, E; Hicks, A.L; Sanchez-Leon, M.D; Jain, K; Lefkowitch, J; Navarrete-Macias, I; Knowles, N; Solovyov, A; Goldstein, T; Pugliares, K; Ip, H.S; Rowles, T; Lipkin, W.I. 2015. Discovery of a novel hepatovirus (Phopivirus of seals) related to human hepatitis A virus. mBio.
Anthony, S.J; Islam, A; Johnson, C; Navarrete-Macias, I; Liang, E; Jain, K; Hitchens, P.L; Che, X; Soloyvov, A; Hicks, A.L; Ojeda-Flores, R; Ulrich, W; Rostal, M.K, Epstein, J.H; Petrosov, A; Garcia, J; Haider, N; Wolfe, N; Goldstein, T; Morse, S.S; Rahman, M; Mazet, J; Daszak, P; Lipkin, W.I. 2015. Non-random patterns in viral diversity. Accepted, Nature Communications.
Lipkin, W.I; Anthony, S.J. Virus Hunting (review). 2015. Virology. 2015:194-9. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.02.006
Anthony, S.J; Garner, M.M; Palminteri, L; Navarrete-Macias, I; Sanchez-Leon, M.D; Briese, T; Daszak, P; Lipkin, W.I. West Nile virus in the British Virgin Islands. 2014. EcoHealth: Doi: 10.1007/s10393-014-0910-6
Bogich, T.L; Anthony, S.J; Nichols, J.D. Surveillance theory applied to virus detection: A case for targeted discovery (Special Report). 2014 Future Virology 8 (12) 1201-1206. Doi: 10.2217/fvl.13.105
Anthony, S.J; St. Leger, J.A; Navarrete-Macias, I; Nilson, E; Sanchez-Leon, M; Liang, E; Seimon, T; Jain, K; Daszak, P; Briese, T; Lipkin, W.I. Polyomavirus in a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) with tracheobronchitis. (2013). PLoS ONE 8(7): e68239. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068239
Anthony, S.J; Ojeda-Flores, R; Rico-Chavez, O; Navarrete-Macias, I; Zambrana-Torrelio, C; Rostal, M.K; Epstein, J.H; Tipps, T; Liang, E; Sanchez-Leon, M.D; Sotomayor-Bonilla, J; Aguirre, A.A; Avila-Flores, R; Medellin, R.A; Goldstein, T; Suzan, G; Daszak, P; Lipkin, W.I. Coronaviruses in bats from Mexico. (2013). J.Gen Virol. 94:
Anthony, S.J; Epstein, J.H; Murray, K.A; Navarrete-Macias, I; Zambrana-Torrelio, C.M; Solovyov, A; Ojeda-Flores, R; Arrigo, N.C; Islam, A; Ali Khan, S; Hosseini, P; Bogich, T.L; Olival, K.J; Sanchez-Leon, M.D; Karesh, W; Goldstein, T; Luby, S.P; Morse, S.S; Mazet, JAK; Daszak, P; Lipkin, W.I. A strategy to estimate unknown viral diversity mammals. (2013). mBio 4(5): e00598-13. doi:10.1128/mBio.00598-13
Goldstein, T; Mena, I; Anthony, S.J; Medina; R; Robinson, P.W; Greig, D.J; Costa, D.P; Lipkin, W.I; Garcia-Sastre, A;Boyce, W .M. Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Isolated from Free-Ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the Central California Coast. (2013). PLoS One. 8(5): e62259. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062259
Anthony, S.J; St Leger, J.A; Pugliares, K; Ip, H.S; Chan, J.M; Carpenter, Z.W; Navarette-Macias, I; Sanchez-Leon, M; Saliki, J.T; Pedersen, J; Karesh, W; Daszak, P; Rabadan, R; Rowles, T; Lipkin, W.I. Emergence of fatal influenza in New England Harbor seals. (2012). mBio 3(4):e00166-12. doi:10.1128/mBio.00166-12