Course Descriptions - Population and Family Health
P6615   Demographic Methods and Principles , 1.5 points
This course is designed to introduce students to basic concepts of demographic measurement including measures of mortality, fertility and migration; life table construction and population projections. These tools are used to 1) study changes in population size and composition (particularly the demographic and epidemiological transitions), 2) assess the quality of demographic data, and 3) evaluate the impact of public health programs. Students will learn to apply demographic methods through a series of practical applications using MS Excel.
P6670   Accountability in Humanitarian Aid, 1.5 points
Historically, the standards by which international NGOs were held to account were based on donor scrutiny of financial statements and output oriented program results. Since the 2005 Asian tsunami and the findings from the Tsunami Evaluation Coalition report, accountability has been a topic that has garnered much attention within the humanitarian sector and more actors within the humanitarian sphere are insisting that NGOs and the UN also be held to account to the people they intend to serve. As DFID?s 2011 Humanitarian Policy has stated: ?The people who are on the receiving end of our assistance are rarely, if ever, consulted on how best their needs can be met or able to choose who helps them and how... This has long been recognised as a problem, but little has been done about it.? In many disaster contexts, too few people know what they are entitled to receive, how to complain if they do not get it, and are unable actively and meaningfully to participate in the planning and delivery of assistance. A proliferation of codes, standards and frameworks have emerged to guide humanitarian responders in promoting greater accountability to beneficiaries. This trend has gained such momentum, that it is now essentially unquestioned as a driving concept or paradigm for humanitarian action.

This short course will explore the concept of accountability within humanitarian intervention. In particular it will look at the contemporary significance of accountability for humanitarian response ? when and why it has become an important concept for humanitarian intervention, and specific events that have led to a shift from donors to recipients of aid as the agents of accountability.
P6690, P8690, P9690   Tutorials in Population and Family Health, 1 to 6 points
Tailored to the particular interests and needs of individual students, these tutorials may take many forms-seminars, literature reviews, research projects, field trips, and other special studies or learning experiences - drawing upon the expertise of faculty members in these areas.
P8600   Pedagogy of Sexuality Education, 3 points
Pedagogy of Sexuality Education will provide students with the background and skills they need to design, implement and evaluate evidence-based sexuality education interventions. The course will emphasize teaching methodology for working in person with groups and students will learn techniques for improving participants' knowledge, attitudes, understanding of actual norms, self-efficacy and skills related to sexual health. Further, all students will learn strategies for facilitating group learning, responding to the needs of students of various ages and developmental stages, and ways to engage parents. The course will include designing and delivering lesson plans and receiving substantive feedback from the other course participants and the instructor. Special issues including techniques for working effectively within tight time constraints, preventing controversy and utilizing new technology for sexuality education will also be addressed. The context in which young people are learning about sexuality and dominant cultural scripts will be analyzed to determine pedagogical objectives.
P8601   Public Health Program Planning, 3 points
Students learn to design a viable and culturally appropriate sexual and reproductive health program, in both a U.S. and developing-country context. Students develop skills in analyzing local needs and resources; articulating program goals and objectives; designing relevant program components; planning program monitoring and evaluation; and raising funds. Readings, case examples and class discussions will focus largely on sexual and reproductive health, though students are welcome to use other areas of relevant public health practice for class discussion and assignments. Students are required to complete short periodic assignments and develop a final program proposal. Students must register for a section of seminar P8602.
P8605   Public Health Aspects of Reproductive Health, 3 points
Prerequisites: Population and Family Health: Core Reproductive Health Module.
The interventions and programs to improve the reproductive health of women and men are generally well described and their efficacy well known. And yet reproductive health conditions – including HIV/AIDS - are the leading cause of death and illness in women worldwide (15-44 years of age), and the second leading cause of death and illness when both men and women of reproductive age are taken into account. Globally, an estimated 250 million years of productive life are lost every year as a result of reproductive health problems. The poor disproportionately bear the consequences of poor reproductive health, especially impoverished women and young people and there are glaring disparities in access to reproductive health care between rich and poor, within and among countries

The purpose of this course is to examine the drivers of these inequities in reproductive health status and to provide students with an opportunity to engage with current debates and critiques of key reproductive health issues. Students will examine the intersections between reproductive health and health systems and health sector reforms, public health practice and programs, monitoring and measurement, policy and politics, and reproductive and sexual rights. These issues will be explored in the context of specific reproductive health issues including abortion, pregnancy, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, maternal mortality and the reproductive health issues facing men. The course will draw from both domestic and international experience.

P8607   Health and Human Rights Advocacy, 1.5 points
The class explores how laws, policies, and rights function to shape public health, with particular emphasis on the implications of this interaction for rights-based approaches to health programs and policy. After introducing the principles, practices, and underlying assumptions of law, policy, and rights, the class offers students the opportunity to use human rights tools in documentation of health-related human rights violations and formulating programs, policy responses, and advocacy strategies to violations. A wide range of issues ? sexual and reproductive rights, HIV/AIDS, health problems of criminalized populations, the intersection of the environment and health, and others ? are explored to illustrate the importance of sustained human rights inquiry and analysis in public health.
P8610   SRH and HIV/AIDS: clinical, policy, and program perspectives, 3 points
This course provides an overview of HIV epidemic, including the basics of HIV and AIDS, key trends in international and country responses, emerging and human rights issues, the political environment, and lessons learned from HIV prevention and treatment policies and programmes. Recognizing that the AIDS epidemic is a development and human rights concern, gender, socio-cultural, human rights, and political perspectives are applied throughout. Lessons learned globally in HIV programming are analyzed and skills enhanced to design and implement effective programmes and influence policies in response to the AIDS epidemic.
P8612   Eliminating Pediatric AIDS: Towards a Global Approach, 1.5 points
In the mid 1980's, Harlem had the highest rate of maternal-newborn HIV infection in the United States and AIDS was the leading cause of childhood death. Now, pediatric AIDS is on the verge of elimination. This success resulted from complex, intertwining factors (clinical, health care, public health, advocacy, social, ethical, legal and others). Although New York has led the way, similar trends are now seen in all resource-rich countries. This course will trace the history of pediatric AIDS in Harlem and New York and examine the applicability of lessons learned to low-resource settings. Global case studies will focus on the Dominican Republic and Haiti, mindful of the broader struggle to eliminate pediatric HIV/AIDS and prevent children from being orphaned by AIDS.
P8614   Management of health care organizations, 3 points
Becoming a leader in the field of public health requires an awareness of one's strengths, assets and challenges in the management of programs and organizations. In today's world, it also demands an understanding of the health care environment and the political, social and cultural context of any single project. Public health leaders require a range of skills including supervising and managing people, project development, organization governance, advocacy and institutional change. This course provides an overview of management issues in variety of organizational settings and the larger public health environment; describes managerial functions and problem solving strategies, financial management principles, and management models for change; develops specific skills in leadership, program management, budgeting, and workforce development.

P8615   Current issues in sexual health, 3 points
Students critically examine sexual health and specific sexual health issues within a global context. The first part of the course examines sexual health as a concept the different frames of sexual health (medical, public health, feminist, human rights); the macro and micro factors that enable and/or impede sexual health and our efforts to improve sexual health in communities. The focus is particularly on key social factors including culture, gender-based norms that constrain the sexual expression and health of women and men, racism, and poverty. The second part focuses on selected sexual health issues including sexual pleasure/desire and well-being; unintended pregnancy; non-volitional sex; and stigmatization and discrimination against sexual minorities.
P8616   Public health aspects of adolescent health, 3 points
Who are adolescents? Who are young adults? What is “health” for adolescents and young adults? How “healthy” are they? Why is it important to invest in efforts to improve their health? What is public health's role in improving the health of young people? Adolescents and young adults comprise a large and growing segment of the world's population. An estimated 1.7 billion young people, more than a quarter of the world's population, are between 10-24 years old. Approximately 80% of these youth live in developing countries. This is the largest generation of young people ever recorded and for the first time, there is growing evidence that their life span will be shorter than their parents' generation. Understanding the needs of young people who are neither children nor adults is critical to the development of responsive public health policies and “youth friendly” public health programs.

Adolescence is uniquely experienced in different societies throughout the world. Economic, gender, and other social determinants contribute to the adolescent's passage from childhood to adulthood. Adolescence and young adulthood ("the odyssey years") are critical periods during the life cycle when significant physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes occur. Young people must navigate through a wide array of new experiences in novel settings, and their journey presents both risks and opportunities. Most young people manage this journey successfully. In fact, traditional indicators of health (e.g. mortality) suggest that the vast majority are "healthy". Other indicators such as involvement in health compromising behaviors, high rates of "school failure", and underutilization of preventive health services however, suggest that there is much room for improvement.

Young people do best when they receive support from parents, non-parental adults, peers, service providers, and communities. Neighborhood and community environments, peers, public policies, and access to "youth friendly" services- to name just a few- influence the health and well-being of young people. Health is also affected by behavior. For example, 80% of deaths among 16-24 year olds in the U.S. are due to preventable causes: unintentional injury, homicide, and suicide.

This course provides an overview of the health status of adolescents and young adults from both a national and global perspective. "Health", as defined by the World Health Organization, is viewed as a positive construct that goes beyond prevention of disease. This course will focus rather, on a holistic conception of health that includes promotion of emotional, cognitive, and social wellbeing such as feeling happy; feeling hopeful about one's future; being connected to peers, school and family; having confidence about social skills; feeling academically competent and experiencing success in school. Students will explore adolescents' and young adults' sexual and reproductive health, obesity and overweight associated with physical activity & eating behaviors, interpersonal relationships (that are sometimes violent), substance use, and mental health. School dropout, involvement in juvenile and criminal justice systems, and youth unemployment will be reframed as public health issues. Development, behavior, and "health" will be examined from an ecological perspective, i.e. within the contexts of physical and social environments in which young people are embedded.

A "youth development" paradigm will be emphasized. Young people will be viewed as resources to be developed, not problems to be fixed. Participation of public health practitioners in developing, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and advocating for evidence-based and human rights-based "youth friendly" services will be illustrated. Students will increase their substantive knowledge of adolescent and young adult health through assigned readings, class activities, and written assignments, and will apply this knowledge through visits to "youth friendly" programs and discussions with invited "guest faculty" who will share their expertise working with young people.

P8619   Survey Design and Data Collection, 3 points
This course provides students the requisite skills for conducting successful survey research, particularly in a service-based, health promotion context. The course includes introduction to the fundamental concepts and components of survey design, the development of research questions and hypotheses, and guidelines for decision-making regarding various phases of a study. Students will become familiar with the pre-field and data collection activities inherent in survey research; and master the art and science of writing knowledge, attitude, and behavior questions. By the conclusion of the course students will have a full-length, self-designed and pretested questionnaire, and be able to plan and execute a sound research study that involves quantitative data collection.

This course provides students the requisite skills for conducting successful service-based research, including fundamental concepts and components of research design, the development of research questions and hypotheses, and decision-making strategies for study protocol. Also included are two modes of primary data collection commonly utilized in service-based research: the focus group and the quantitative survey. We will closely examine each, learning the purposes, strengths, and limitations of the methods; becoming familiar with the pre-field and data collection activities inherent in each; and practicing the art and science of actually writing topic guides and survey questionnaires. By the conclusion of the course students will have a complete, self-designed questionnaire, and be able to plan and execute a sound research study.

This course provides students the requisite skills for conducting successful service-based research, including fundamental concepts and components of research design, the development of research questions and hypotheses, and decision-making strategies for study protocol. Also included are two modes of primary data collection commonly utilized in service-based research: the focus group and the quantitative survey. We will closely examine each, learning the purposes, strengths, and limitations of the methods; becoming familiar with the pre-field and data collection activities inherent in each; and practicing the art and science of actually writing topic guides and survey questionnaires. By the conclusion of the course students will have a complete, self-designed questionnaire, and be able to plan and execute a sound research study.
P8620   Protection of Children in Disaster and War, 3.0 points
This seven-week course explores operational ways of addressing child protection concerns in natural disaster and war. It examines child protection from both a reduction of physical risk and a promotion of developmental well-being perspectives. Students will develop a practical understanding of effective interventions for preventing and responding to specific child protection concerns, including child-family separations; child recruitment and use as armed combatants; and sexual violence, abuse and psychosocial survival. Students will explore systemic approaches to promoting a "protective environment" for children in emergencies and post conflict-reintegration transitions. Students will review strategies for incorporating critical elements of child protection into broader humanitarian response operations; coordination among humanitarian agencies; evidence-based programming; community participation in child protection; and advocacy and policy change.
P8623   Quantitative data analysis: service-based research II, 3 points
Prerequisites: P8617
In this course you will learn to develop and implement an analysis plan and to interpret the results of the analyses from two different evaluation studies. The early phase of the course will focus on the pre-data analysis activities, which are necessary but often, overlooked in the research training process. These include: data entry, data cleaning and data transformation. You will learn to use SPSS/PC to conduct the various tasks outlined above. Two data sets will serve as the basis for the class. The primary data set is an evaluation of a summer HIV education program for youth in Washington Heights, NY. The secondary data set is an evaluation of BRAC, a women's microcredit program in Bangladesh. More information about BRAC is available at

P8625   Communicable Disease in Complex Emergencies , 1.5 points
How do we respond to communicable diseases in complex emergencies? How are diseases transmitted and how to we prevent, detect, and control the major communicable disease encountered by affected populations in complex settings? What are governments, UN, and nongovernmental organizations responding to disease prevention, mitigation and control? During situations of war, civil strife, mass displacement of people how to we study what has worked in terms of controlling disease outbreaks and what has not?
Since the 1994 cholera epidemic in Goma, Zaire, the humanitarian community has improved it ability to perform operational research to detect and respond to communicable disease outbreaks where infrastructure and information are limited and come up with evidence informed approaches to response. Exploring the interplay programmatic and scientific advances in humanitarian response is imperative to development of capitalizing on the lessons learned from pervious emergencies.

This course focuses on familiarize students with the epidemiology, pathobiology, diagnostic methods, treatment, preventive interventions and, especially, programmatic considerations regarding the leading infectious diseases encountered by humanitarian health workers in emergency settings.

We will discuss the roles of different actors, including international governmental and non-governmental organizations in developing surveillance, preparing for and intervening during outbreaks, and serving as advocates for the public's health in relation to the diseases in question.

Because this course is part of the Program on Forced Migration and Health as an elective course in Population and Family Health and because experience has shown that there students enrolling in the Programs' courses have quite diverse backgrounds and levels of experience, it will be important for a discussion to be held regarding the most appropriate objectives and level of instruction for the course. I would appreciate hearing from registered students, even prior to the first of the seven scheduled sessions, what you would like to take away from this course in terms of knowledge and in terms of skills. We will discuss this topic at the start of the first session.

Also, this syllabus will always be in 'draft' form - I will be adding, but probably not deleting, additional readings as the semester progresses. The field is constantly evolving, new literature is appearing, and my thinking, and hopefully yours, is always changing.

P8626   Planning Child Survival Programs, 1.5 points
Prerequisites: P8625
Over the past several decades child health programs have contributed to a steady decline in the absolute number and rate of under-5 deaths worldwide, with an acceleration of the rate of decline in the last 10 years. There still, however, is work to be done: little progress has been made in mitigating neonatal deaths that compromise an increasing proportion of the total (40%), rates of decline have been slowest in sub-Saharan Africa, and evaluation and implementation of efficient delivery mechanisms in the context of low- and middle-income countries has been slow. This course will examine the evidence-base that does exist on how best to deliver known effective and cost effective prevention and treatment interventions at the community and first level health center that could further reduce mortality. Students will engage in an evidence-based approach to child survival in challenging contexts, expanding on disease specific knowledge of the major killers of children gained in Communicable Diseases in Complex Emergencies. We will explore preventive and curative service delivery mechanisms in depth, focusing on the community and primary health clinic level, and develop the skills to effectively plan, manage, and understand the challenges of programs at these levels. The course will help students develop skills to design and manage programs on child health in the difficult real world environments where most morbidity and mortality occur.
P8628   Public health aspects of child health, 3 points
This course is designed to provide students with an overview of key child health status indicators, and major causes of child health and disease at the individual and population levels. By studying examples of significant child health problems and solutions in a range of populations in the United States and internationally, students will learn how to define and assess a child health problem, and become familiar with public health intervention strategies and their potential impact. In addition, students will gain an understanding of how social and environmental conditions contribute to patterns of morbidity and mortality, as well as individual risk within a population and health disparities across populations.

The course content is organized into three modules: (1) Poverty and Social Adversity; (2) Physical Environment and Safety; and (3) Lifestyle and Behaviors. Within each module, key child health problems and programmatic solutions are studied, followed by an in-class exercise at the completion of the module. The format combines lectures and discussion with team-based learning. In addition, some class sessions take place at program sites, where students participate in field-based learning. Assignments include readings (available on Courseworks) to provide background for each session. Students are divided into learning groups (6-8 members), which meet at the start of each class to integrate the out-of-class readings into each session.
P8633   Issues in School-Based Health, 1.5 points
Class participants will be offered both a didactic experience and hands-on field exploration of the evolving public health mission and role of schools as an organized network for health education, medical care, and civic involvement. While the emphasis will be on the existing models of School Health available in the local urban New York area, students will also explore alternate school health models in rural, national, international, and global settings. This class is designed for MPH candidates from all departments who are looking to complete their graduate school experience through the integration and application of their skills sets with practical program experience on the field. Participants will work as a group with a community school to plan and develop a project proposal for funding and implementation. Students will interact with various local agency and community players in both the education and school health fields. This course will also expose candidates with an interest in school health, child health, health education and health promotion to local agencies and non-profits directly involved in education and school-related public health services.
P8637   Qualitative data analysis: service-based research III, 3 points
Prerequisites: P8617 (can be co-requisite)
While the collection of qualitative data is widespread and growing in public health research, the credibility and quality of data analysis suffers from an absence of system and rigor in recording, organizing, categorizing and interpreting qualitative findings. Focusing in particular on interview data, this course introduces a variety of approaches to qualitative data analysis, and encourages their application through hands-on group work and homework assignments.
P8639   Gender-based violence in complex emergencies, 1.5 points
This seven-week course explores the socio-cultural and political factors that contribute to the existence of gender-based violence and which lead to an increased occurrence of acts of gender-based violence in complex emergencies, with an emphasis on conflict zones. Students will develop a practical understanding of effective interventions for preventing and responding to violence against women and girls in different phases of complex emergencies. Specifically, students learn the conceptual framework for preventing and responding to gender-based violence and the practical framework for developing gender-based violence programming. Furthermore, students review strategies for incorporating critical elements of gender-based violence programming: coordination among humanitarian agencies; evidence-based programming; and engaging communities in programming.
P8640   Methods in Program Evaluation, 3 points
Prerequisites: P8601
Increasing demand for transparency and accountability, particularly with respect to donor-funded humanitarian programs, has heightened the need for skilled evaluators. To this end, students in this course will become familiar with various forms of evaluation and acquire the technical skills necessary for their development, design and execution through lectures and discussion, exercises, guest presentations and real world examples. Specifically, students will discover evidence-based methods for identifying stakeholders, crafting evaluation questions, designing instruments, sampling and data gathering to achieve good response rates, analysis and synthesis of information for report-writing and case studies.

P8642   Health Assessment, Program Design, Program Monitoring in Emergencies, 1.5 points
Humanitarian health programs are developed quickly when large-scale disasters occur. In the past there has been little assessment of need in developing programs and monitoring their impacts. Yet funders increasingly demand accountability to identify program impacts and analysis of choices made to improve future programs. Skill at assessing need, justifying program development, and monitoring implementation builds on knowledge of field epidemiology to characterize the burden of disease, identify major intervention opportunities, and create or mobilize existing health service infrastructure. Students will become familiar with the tools, monitoring mechanisms, reports, and analytical methods used to assess, elaborate, monitor, and evaluate emergency health programs. Extensive examples and the actual tools and reports used, especially from disasters in Haiti and Pakistan in 2010 and the 2005 Asian tsunami, will be used in this hands-on course. Lectures will be supplemented with student projects, document review, guest lectures, and a writing/analytical project.
P8643   Maternal and child health in international primary health care, 3 points
International Maternal and Child Health is a survey course designed to introduce students to major health issues in the life stages of women and children and to present public health responses to these issues. The course provides a broad view of the priority health problems of mothers and children, identifies primary health care interventions, and addresses the barriers to care. Interventions include UNICEF's GOBI-FFF, (growth monitoring, oral rehydration, and breastfeeding, immunizations, along with food provision, female literacy, and family planning) but also women's nutritional, reproductive and mental health, birth spacing, female literacy, development, and the impact of HIV, TBC, malaria and other endemic conditions. The second half of the course addresses salient aspects of health care delivery both in times of emergency and in its longer term, aspects: community empowerment, politics, the media, violence, war and refugee issues, design and organization, training, equity & corruption and monitoring & evaluation. Sustainable primary MCH care is presented as a function of permanent partnerships: community ownership with professional oversight and money/power support.

Students (who come from many disciplines: medicine, public health, Peace Corps, international relations, nutrition, etc) make group presentations based on a rich reading list while the instructors mentor their presentations, react to them, and present a focused summary of the main issues involved. They are evaluated on each of their presentations, their finding and presenting of data from all sources but including at least one new published article, and their ability to pick out the salient issues, their success in engaging colleagues in the learning process and, when not presenting, on their contributions in the class; this requires their regular attendance since the entire class participates at each session. In the context of an integrated primary care strategy for addressing international M.C.H. problems, students learn the basics of organizing a presentation, team work, training and evaluation according to the principles of Paulo Freire. There is no written examination or paper.

P8648   Food and nutrition in complex emergencies, 1.5 points
Prerequisites: Quantitative core module or P6103, and P8687
The goal of this course is that those having completed it will have the skills and tools needed to make a useful contribution to nutrition programs and/or nutritional assessment in emergency situations. Each session has a specific learning objective, as noted below. Every attempt will be made to ground course materials in real-life situations and examples. Also, since food and nutrition emergencies do not happen in a vacuum, the course also deals to some degree with the larger context of the politics of under-nutrition in non-emergency situations and how the continued neglect of under-nutrition globally and in many countries poses challenges for addressing food and nutrition emergencies.
P8651   Water and sanitation in complex emergencies, 1.5 points
Prerequisites: Quantitative core module or P6400
This course will focus on the public health role of water and sanitation services for those people who are displaced, impacted by war, or in settings of extreme poverty. Most classes will be comprised of case-studies with special emphasis on controlling enteric diseases. Participants are expected to develop the epidemiological skills needed to estimate populations, and estimate water consumption and sanitation coverage of specific populations. Basic engineering principles that promote the protection of human health will be covered.
P8653   Vaccines: From Biology to Policy , 1.5 points
Vaccines have been heralded as one of the most important public health interventions of the 20th century. However, our systems for vaccine development, delivery and acceptance remain fragile. This course is designed to teach students the basics of vaccine preventable illnesses, how vaccines work, and how they have improved the health of our communities. Specific issues to be covered include: vaccine development and clinical trials, licensure and professional endorsement, vaccine safety, vaccine delivery, measuring vaccine coverage, vaccine financing, parental and provider vaccine acceptance, vaccine mandates, and the anti-vaccine movement. Comparisons between US and international vaccine programs will be made.
P8654   Malaria Program Planning, 1.5 points
Prerequisites: P8601 & P8625 or permission
Malaria, a disease prevalent in the United States until the early 1950s, remains a major public health problem in most of the global south, accounting for a substantial proportion of childhood deaths and a profound burden on pregnant women, economic growth, and mobile and migrant populations. Global commitment and financing for malaria control, however, has greatly increased resulting in one of the most exciting and successful public health efforts in the last decade. While there is a general consensus in the malaria community on an elimination strategy, the scale up of effective prevention and control interventions has been hampered by competing economic priorities, poor infrastructure and delivery mechanisms, limited human resources, technical constraints, lack of an effective vaccine, and resistance to both antimalarial drugs and insecticides. Students, using knowledge of the epidemiology of malaria and prevention and control interventions gained in class, will use simulated scenarios to devise programmatic strategies to develop plans to control and eliminate malaria in different contexts of endemicity and country capacity towards the goal of shrinking the malaria map. Lectures, review of current literature, and critical appraisal of global strategies will form the basis of a student assignment to develop a country-level malaria operational plan. The assignment will emphasize not only a consideration of technical interventions for varying epidemiologic environments, but also consideration of investments in delivery mechanisms and systems, partnerships with other national and global agencies, and prioritization with other country health objectives.
P8659   Fundamentals of Health Care Systems in Developing Countries, 1.5 points
This course is a survey of health systems in developing countries and begins to address assessment, interventions, monitoring and evaluation, and sustainability of health system improvements. The course examines interrelatedness between health system components and integration as an essential factor in ensuring effective service delivery and improved population health outcomes.

We begin with an introduction to health systems and the application of systems thinking to address health systems performance. In the second part, the course will focus on defining and describing a conceptual framework for health systems strengthening. The final phase of the course will draw together concepts and approaches for strengthening health systems for practical application, informed by available data and socio-cultural dynamics. The course will provide the foundation for operationalizing health systems frameworks, and the application of tools for understanding the functioning of health systems. Students will leave able to locate programs and/or policies within a larger health system and describe their effects or implications for the health system as a whole.

Key concepts for each session will be presented in a lecture format. Students will participate in class discussions; blog-based discussions, in-class group work, and complete a final paper on a topic relevant to health systems in developing countries. As appropriate, guest lectures will provide "on-the-ground" experience on the various topics.
P8662   Trends in Child Development Programs: A Global Perspective, 3 points
Early childhood is a critical window of opportunity in human development to influence health, learning and productivity throughout life. In the earliest years of childhood, survival, growth and development are interlinked; growth affects both chances of survival and the child?s development, and all three are influenced by family care practices, resources and access to services. Therefore, efforts to improve health, nutrition, clean water, sanitation, child development, and child protection are mutually reinforcing. Contributing to increased investment in the early years are new demands related to changing economic, social, demographic, political and educational conditions. The course will help students understand the role of Early Child Development programs (ECD) in the achievement of international Education for All and Millennium Development goals and be aware of mechanisms that can be used to increase national attention. Through lecture, small-group discussions and debates, and presentations by guest speakers, students will learn to analyze programs and services that have been developed for use with specific populations ?working with parents, supporting young children in time of emergencies, and working within the health care system through a variety of hospital, community and family-based approaches to promote young children?s survival and development. Using cases studies, critical reviews and program evaluation research, students will examine both the commonalties and differences in designing programs for young children in low, middle and high income countries.
P8670   Training for public health programs, 1.5 points
The purpose of the course is to teach participants the key principles and skills needed to design, deliver, and evaluate participatory training activities for public health programs in the United States and in developing countries.

P8671   The Globalization of Motherhood: Declining Birthrates and the Deconstruction of Biology & Care, 1.5 points
Prerequisites: P8615 or equivalent
The convergence of dramatic declines in birth rates worldwide (aside from sub-Saharan Africa), the rise of untrammeled global movement of capital, people and information, and the rapid-fire dissemination of a host of new medical technologies has led to the "globalization of motherhood". We use this term to highlight the transnational causes and consequences of the disaggregation of the biologic and care giving components of motherhood, specifically adoption, migration of nannies, and use of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). We focus here on the resulting transnational movements of people to perform or obtain childcare work (nannies), to relinquish or obtain babies (adoption) or to use ARTs ("reproductive tourism" for treatment, gametes or uteri). Progress towards gender equity in both employment and domestic responsibilities for women from the developed world relies, in part, on economic and gendered inequities confronting other groups of women. This interaction perpetuates gender- associated limitations for both, although neither equally, nor similarly. These transnational dynamics regarding biologic and social reproduction have consequences for public health, human rights, the construct of family, and labor.
P8672   Beyond Choice: Emerging Complexities in Reproductive Health, 1.5 points
Prerequisites: P8615 or equivalent
Political discourse regarding reproduction continues to focus on longstanding questions of female autonomy, fetal selfhood, and the relationship between sexual activity and reproduction. Yet, while political actors reprise these arguments ad infinitum, on the ground experiences lead to a host of new and complicated questions. This 7-week course will explore in-depth questions such as: the complexities of "reproductive choice" in the context of technologic prowess and global disparities; the changing roles of fathers and implications for gender equity, women's autonomy, and reproductive decision making; and the regulation of reproductive medicine, biotechnologies and pharmaceuticals and the implications for safety, distributive justice, and meaning of citizenship in this globalized era. Students will critically analyze reproductive health policies based on contextual factors, stakeholder interests, and ethical, human rights and scientific criteria, then create and defend their own policy as a final project. Each session will include a lecture by Dr. Chavkin or one of several guest speakers, followed by a class discussion and in-class activity, such as a debate, case study, or peer review exercise.
P8673   Reproductive Health in Crisis Situations, 1.5 points
In this 7 week course, students analyze the policy and program factors influencing the provision of reproductive health services (or lack thereof) for people affected by armed conflict and natural disasters. Specifically students will study the history of reproductive health service delivery in conflict-affected settings, review internationally-established guidelines for meeting the RH needs of refugees and war-affected populations, assess enabling and impeding factors in selected global trouble- spots, describe a reasoned programmatic approach to a particular situation, discuss the current situation of the field and future directions for RH services in complex emergency settings.
P8675   Health Systems Approach to Maternal Mortality, 1.5 points
Prerequisites: P8605 (recommended)
This course teaches students about maternal health, employing a systems approach to explore maternal health issues and analyze programs focused on maternal mortality reduction. The complexity of maternal mortality makes a systems approach particularly useful for gaining insight on and addressing maternal deaths, and systems approaches are increasingly being employed as a tool for maternal health planning and programs in the field.

Students will gain substantive knowledge of issues related to maternal health – in particular the reduction of maternal morbidity and mortality – including epidemiological and programmatic aspects as well as current discussions of related policies and politics. Students will learn to adopt a systems-thinking approach as they examine the intersections between maternal health globally and health systems and health sector reforms, including public health practice and programs, monitoring/measurement, policy/politics, and rights based approaches. This course is intended for MPH students and is an elective in the Population and Family Health department.

P8676   Epidemiological methods for measuring human rights abuses, 1.5 points
Prerequisites: Quantitative core module, or P6103 and P6400
The occurrence of murder, disappearances, and rape are common during complex emergencies and yet the rate of these events is rarely measured while the conflict is ongoing. In some cases, groups are denied life-sustaining services because of race, politics, or HIV status. Public health practitioners are uniquely situated and qualified to advocate for populations whose human rights and survival are threatened by the intentional actions of organized groups. This class will teach students techniques for detecting and estimating the rates of these major abuses of human rights in order to better advocate for the abused, and to permit the evaluation of programs designed to prevent such events. At the end of the course, students will be expected to be able to evaluate the sensitivity of surveillance systems, and undertake surveys, designed to measure the rates of violent deaths and rape. Classes will involve a combination of lectures, case studies, and a research project ending with a debate. Students will be evaluated based on class participation and a paper.
P8679   Investigative methods in complex emergencies, 3 points
Prerequisites: MSPH Core (or P6103 and P6400)
The design, implementation and evaluation of health interventions in complex emergencies requires a particular professional orientation and skill set. Students gain a greater understanding of the use of qualitative and quantitative methods tailored for this purpose. The course particularly emphasizes the complementary roles of qualitative and quantitative approaches to investigation. By the end of the class, students should be competent in a range of skills including sampling strategy, designing surveys, running focus groups and participative activities, calculating morbidity and mortality rates, and analyzing narrative text. Through group work, lectures, case studies and participatory assignments, students will develop a diverse skill set relevant to their future work in a range of field settings.
P8683   Psychosocial and mental health issues in forced migration, 1.5 points
Contemporary armed conflicts and complex humanitarian emergencies create significant mental health burdens and psychosocial suffering that damages health and well-being, limits development, and enables cycles of violence. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, this course examines the sources of psychosocial vulnerability and resilience in situations of forced migration and analyzes what kinds of emergency psychosocial and mental health interventions are most effective, appropriate, and scalable. It reviews broadly the current state of knowledge and practice, surveys practical tools of holistic psychosocial and mental health support in emergency settings, and analyzes the current limitations of the field. The course probes how issues of culture and power shape understandings and measures of mental health and psychosocial well-being, and it invites critical thinking about the implications of the “Do No Harm” imperative in regard to psychosocial and mental health supports. It also encourages thinking about how psychosocial support relates to wider tasks of humanitarian relief, economic and political reconstruction, protection, and peace building.
P8685   Migration and Health Global and Local Perspectives, 1.5 points
Globally, and here in NYC and the US, there is a resurgence of interest in the relation between migration and health. Whether migrants are able to become more healthy, or whether they become more at risk for illness, depends on a multitude of factors. This course examines the ways that migration and health intersect, both in general and for specific categories of migrants. Because part of the difficulty of understanding migration and health relations stems from problems in tracking health for migrants, many of whom are undocumented, forced, or otherwise not "visible" to the system, the course will also examine how we find out about migration-health relations.
P8687   Public health and humanitarian action, 3 points
Humanitarian action has come to occupy a central place in world politics and a theory of rights rather than charity is now driving international assistance and protection in wars and disasters. Global events over the past two decades indeed suggest that the world needs a humanitarian system capable of responding reliably, effectively and efficiently across a full range of emergencies. Whether people are suffering as a result of an earthquake in China or organized violence in Darfur, the humanitarian response system is expected to reach them in a timely and informed manner. Global wealth suggests that it can; and, global morality says that it should.

Success of humanitarian action depends upon political, technical and organizational factors. The practice of public health focuses on improving the technical and organizational capacities, but this course will display that political forces are equally essential for alleviating human suffering. Deep problems of political distortion and perennial problems of agency performance and practice continue to compromise global, impartial and effective humanitarian action.

This course examines efforts to provide humanitarian assistance and protection in war and disaster crises. It combines the theoretical with the possible, highlighting constraints to action from the perspective of the humanitarian agency and professional worker in the field. Key public health priorities—including the major causes of disease and death and how best to detect, prevent and treat them--are examined. Particular attention is paid to human rights and humanitarian protection, including their nature, content, and linkages with public health assistance. Students will be exposed to current trends and debates, sides will be taken and defended, and the class will be enriched by the participation, contributions and challenges of the students.

P8688   Forced migration practicum seminar, 1 point
This course offers a forum for students to reflect upon and discuss their experiences in the practicum environment. Through discussion and presentation, students have the opportunity to integrate their practicum experience into the public health curriculum, as well as to incorporate input and perspectives from other students' experiences. Students who have previously completed their required practicum will deliver a professional presentation of findings from the research conducted or programmatic input provided during the internship. Through this mode of presentation and analysis, students hone their analytic skills, develop leadership capacity, and apply strategic communication techniques. This course forms a fundamental building block in the master's degree curriculum as students synthesize field-based learning with their classroom instruction and gain training for future leadership in public health.
P8691   Public health advocacy for reproductive health, 1.5 points
Prerequisites: P8615 or equivalent
Reproductive health has been so mired in controversy that evidence and scientifically based rational arguments often go unheeded. This course offers public health students entrée to analytic tools and concrete skills needed to intervene in this logjam. While reproductive health is particularly fraught, other public health issues are similarly held captive by political contention.

This course will explore the role of the public health professional in advocacy, with a specific focus on advocacy related to reproductive health. We will examine the various strategies that public health professionals employ to achieve their advocacy goals as well as specific methods and skills vital to effective advocacy. Students will develop an understanding of the varied contributions different actors can make to effective advocacy, with an ongoing emphasis on the role of the public health professional as evidence based expert, skilled technician, policy analyst, leader, and collaborator in advocacy movements.

P8692   Law, Policy, and Human Rights, 3 points
The class explores the way that law, policy, and rights function to shape public health, with particular emphasis on the implications of this interaction for rights-based approaches in health. After introducing the principles, practices, and underlying assumptions of law, policy, and rights, the class offers students the opportunity to use human rights tools in documentation of health-related human rights violations and formulating program and policy responses to violations. A wide range of issues - sexual and reproductive rights, HIV/AIDS, health problems of criminalized populations, and others - are explored to illustrate the importance of sustained human rights inquiry and analysis in public health.
P8697   Reproductive, adolescent, and child health practicum seminar, 0-1 points
This course offers a forum for students to reflect upon and think critically about their experiences in the practicum environment. Through formal presentations and discussion, students have the opportunity to integrate their practicum experience with other elements of the public health curriculum, as well as to incorporate input and perspectives from other students' experiences. Students develop leadership capacity, and apply strategic communication techniques. This course forms a fundamental building block in the master's degree curriculum as students synthesize field-based learning with their classroom instruction and gain training for future leadership and public speaking in public health.
P9630   Applying Ethical and Human Rights Principles in Public Health, 1-2 points
Ethical understanding and conduct are essential to public health research (and public health practice.) This course is designed to improve knowledge of research ethics and to build skills in conducting ethical research -- as these apply to public health research. The course will cover key bioethical principles, application of these principles within US federal and international regulations, boundaries between public health research and public health practice, a range of ethical cases in public health research, and critiques of the current system of ethical review. The class will also cover key issues in the Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) such as authorship, misconduct and professional codes of conduct. The course would be broadly useful to students who plan careers involving public health research and specifically to those who are preparing to submit a protocol to the Institutional Review Board (IRB).
P9650   Global Health & Humanitarian Systems Leadership, 1.5 points
Prerequisites: only for POPF DrPH students
This seminar builds upon Principles and Policy for Global Health & Humanitarian Systems 1& 2 to continue the core doctoral sequence for the DrPH in Leadership in Global Health and Humanitarian Systems. The focus is on key leadership principles for work the field of global health and humanitarian response and identifying core researchable themes – of relevance to public health policy or practice in the field of global health and/or humanitarian response- within a defined field of study.
P9651   Research Design and Management in Global Health, 1.5 points
Prerequisites: only for POPF DrPH students
This seminar completes the core doctoral sequence for the DrPH in Leadership in Global Health and Humanitarian Systems. The focus is on competencies of relevance for preparation for the dissertation proposal defence and, more broadly, specifying a focused program of research in relation to a defined question of public health policy or practice in the field of global health and/or humanitarian response.
P9652   Advanced Research Methods in Global Health, 1.5 points
Prerequisites: only for POPF DrPH students
This 3-credit course is intended to support student preparation for the DrPH Leadership in Global Health & Humanitarian Systems comprehensive methods examination. This comprehensive methods exam assesses consolidated research competencies suitable for completion of the dissertation component of the program and, more broadly, advanced practice in global health and humanitarian systems for which the DrPH program prepares candidates. The exam thus draws on course materials to which DrPH students have been exposed during earlier study, as well as concepts, theories and application that students are expected to attain and consolidate through guided self- and group-study in this course.
P9672   Principles & Policy for Global Health & Humanitarian Systems I, 1.5 points
Prerequisites: DrPH Leadership in Global Health & Humanitarian Systems students only
This course ? together with its sister class, Principles and Policy for Global Health & Humanitarian Systems 2 ? serves as the foundational doctoral seminar class for the DrPH in Leadership in Global Health and Humanitarian Systems.

Students who successfully complete this course will be able to:

-Analyze and critique approaches to population health issues in low-income and crisis-affected contexts with respect to evolving paradigms and shifts in global health and humanitarian governance
-Analyze the complex relationship between policy and practice across diverse contexts
-Discern the potential role of data in informing policy and practice, and the contextual factors shaping the actual influence of data
-Appraise research and evaluation methods suited for field-based evaluation of policy and practice initiatives
-Mobilize concepts, tools and strategies suited to systemic approaches to addressing complex global health and humanitarian challenges
-Formulate conceptually coherent and evidence-based strategies to address presenting challenges in specific low-income and/or crisis-affected settings

The course is structured around four ?case studies? of areas of work that exemplify key developments in both conceptualizing and addressing global health and/or humanitarian challenges. The case studies are chosen to reflect historical developments in the field over the last twenty years: the moves to support District Health Management Teams in the 1990s, the establishment of the Millennium Development Goals (especially MDGs 4 and 5), the emergence of gender-based violence (GBV) as a key theme in humanitarian response, and the establishment of health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs) as a key tool for tracking trends in population health and the impact of health interventions. Guest contributors have typically played key roles in the course of such developments. Students generally complete readings and associated critical and reflective assignments ahead of class sessions, such that they come equipped to class to interact in an informed and critical manner with such guests.

Remaining sessions are focused on the identification, critique and use of key tools and methods for mapping trends in policy and practice, documenting the effectiveness and impact of interventions, and formulating systems-based approaches to address emerging global health and humanitarian challenges.

Students are required to submit a review paper ? of a form suitable for submission for publication ? regarding current and required policy and practice with respect to a specific global health or humanitarian challenge. Such reviews should (a) synthesize data regarding key epidemiological, demographic, political, economic and cultural dimensions of that challenge, (b) analyze and critique historical trends in policy and practice approaches in addressing that challenge and (c) formulate the basis for policy and practice advance with respect to that challenge. Reviews should reflect evolving understandings of the systemic nature of both global health and humanitarian challenges, and the solutions required to address them.

Students will present a two-page outline of the proposed review for discussion in session 4 of the class. Students will be graded on this summary outline and the class presentation. Students will submit the final version of their review paper (to length and format required by the targeted journal) within seven days of the final session of the class (session 7).

In advance of each session, students will be assigned sections of documents or presentations for critical analysis and reflection. Such annotations and commentary will be available to other students, and will a foundation for discussion in each session. An overall grade for such analysis will be awarded.
P9673   Principles and Policy for Global Health & Humanitarian Systems II, 1.5 points
Prerequisites: PopFam DrPH students only
This course ? together with its sister class, Principles and Policy for Global Health & Humanitarian Systems 1 ? serves as the foundational doctoral seminar class for the DrPH in Leadership in Global Health and Humanitarian Systems. The course uses the foundation of the previous class ? focused on case studies of key initiatives in global health and humanitarian policy over the last two decades ? in shifting to consider important foci of contemporary debate. Specifically, this consideration is structured around discussion of four ?principles and policies? of especial influence within the field of global health and humanitarian assistance at the current time. Sessions address, in turn, the principle of universal coverage of basic healthcare; the development of inter-agency guidelines to influence humanitarian practice; the focus on community-based child protection systems within the field of child protection; and the move to establish greater ?public-private partnership? in health systems delivery. As in Principles and Policy for Global Health & Humanitarian Systems 1, many discussions are enhanced by the engagement of guest contributors who have engaged with ? and often played key roles with respect to ? such issues. Students generally complete readings and associated critical and reflective assignments ahead of class sessions, such that they come equipped to class to interact in an informed and critical manner with such guests. Other sessions are focused on introduction to ? and critique and application of ? frameworks for analysing the roles and demands of leadership. These sessions will include visits to senior officials within UN, NGO and other relevant organizations to explore the specific challenges of leadership within global health and humanitarian systems, and the strategies of leaders in addressing them.